The University of Sydney
Faculty of Pharmacy

Kang Lab




Dr. Lifeng Kang

Lab Members


Contact Information




Journal Papers



1.    Ruan Y, Li X, You L, Chen J, Shen Y, Zhang J, Yuan Y, Kang L, Qin C, Wu C. May 2021. Effect of pharmaceutical excipients on intestinal absorption of metformin via organic cation-selective transporters. Molecular Pharmaceutics. DOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.0c01104


2.    Liao W, Jin Q, Liu J, Ruan Y, Li X, Shen Y, Zhang Z, Wang Y, Wu S, Zhang J, Kang L, Wu C. Mar 2021. Mahuang decoction antagonizes acute liver failure via modulating tricarboxylic acid cycle and amino acids metabolism. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 12, 599180. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2021.599180


3.    Tan JJY, Nguyen D-V, Common JE, Wu C., Ho PCL, Kang L. Feb 2021. Investigating PEGDA and GelMA microgel models for sustained 3D heterotypic dermal papilla and keratinocyte co-cultures. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021, 22, 2143. DOI:10.3390/ijms22042143


4.      Lim SH, Park S, Lee CC, Ho PCL, Kwok PCL, Kang L. Feb 2021. A 3D printed human upper respiratory tract model for particulate deposition profiling. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 597, 120307. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120307


5.      Park S, Nguyen DV, Kang L. Feb 2021. Immobilized nanoneedle-like structures for intracellular delivery, biosensing and cellular surgery. Nanomedicine. DOI: 10.2217/nnm-2020-0337


6.      Lim SH, Kathuria H, Muhd Hafiz Bin Amir, Zhang X, Duong HTT, Ho CLP, Kang L. High resolution photopolymer for 3D printing of personalised microneedle for transdermal delivery of anti-wrinkle small peptide. Journal of Controlled Release. 329, 907-918. DOI. 10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.10.021




7.    Kathuria H, Lim D, Cai J, Chung BG, and Kang L. Aug 2020. Microneedles with tunable dissolution rate. ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering. DOI: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c00759


8.    Kathuria H, Nguyen DTP, Handral HK, Cai J, Cao T, Kang L. Jul 2020. Proposome for transdermal delivery of tofacitinib. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 585:119558. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119558


9.    Wong Y, Xu Y, Kang L (co-corresponding author), Yap K. Apr 2020. Development of a 3D-printed medication label for the blind and visually impaired. International Journal of Bioprinting. 6(2): 114-124. DOI: 10.18063/ijb.v6i2.276


10. Chen G, Xu Y, Kwok PCL Kang L. Apr 2020. Pharmaceutical applications of 3D printing. Additive Manufacturing. 34:101209. DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2020.101209


11. Lim SH, Tiew WJ, Zhang J, Ho PC, Kachouie NN, Kang L. Apr 2020. Geometrical optimisation of a personalised microneedle eye patch for transdermal delivery of anti-wrinkle small peptide. Biofabrication. 12(3):035003. DOI: 10.1088/1758-5090/ab6d37


12. Cong J, Ruan Y, Lyu Q, Qin X, Qi X, Liu W, Kang L, Zhang J, Wu C. Apr 2020. A proton-coupled organic cation antiporter is involved in the blood-brain barrier transport of Aconitum alkaloids. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 252:112581. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.112581.


13. Mun SG, Choi HW, Lee JM, Lim JH, Ha JH, Kang MJ, Kim EJ, Kang L, Chung BG. Mar 2020. rGO nanomaterial-mediated cancer targeting and photothermal therapy in a microfluidic co-culture platform. Nano Convergence. 7:10. DOI: 10.1186/s40580-020-0220-3


14. Kathuria H, Kang K, Cai J, Kang L. Feb 2020. Rapid microneedle fabrication by heating and photolithography. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 103:109772. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.118992.




15. Tan JJY, Common J.E., Wu C, Ho PCL, Kang L. Aug 2019. Keratinocytes maintain compartmentalization between dermal papilla and fibroblasts in 3D heterotypic tri-cultures.  Cell Proliferation. 52 (5), e12668. DOI: 10.1111/cpr.12668. (Journal cover)


16. Lim SH, Kochhar JS, Tan JJY, Kwang YC, Kang L. Jul 2019. Microneedles for transdermal drug delivery. Springer Nature, Print ISBN: 978-3-030-15443-1, Online ISBN: 978-3-030-15444-8. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-15444-8.  [book]


17. Ou Y, Ou Yi, Gu J, Kang L. Jul 2019. Personalized anesthetic patches for dental applications. International Journal of Bioprinting. 5(2.1): 15-21. DOI: 10.18063/ijb.v5i2.203.


18. Ding D, Pan J, Yeo SH, Wagholikar V, Lim SH, Wu C, Fuh YHJ, Kang L. May 2019. A miniaturized device for biomembrane permeation analysis. Materials Science & Engineering C. 103:109772. DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.109772.



19. Lim SH, Kathuria H, Tan JJY, Kang L. Nov 2018. 3D printed drug delivery and testing systems. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. DOI: 10.1016/j.addr.2018.05.006.


20. Koh KJ, Liu Y, Lim SH, Loh XJ, Kang L, Lim CY, Phua KKL. Aug 2018. Formulation, characterization and evaluation of mRNA-loaded dissolvable polymeric microneedles (RNApatch). Scientific Report. 7;8(1):11842. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-30290-3.


21. Kathuria H, Kochhar JS, Kang L. Jun 2018. Micro and nanoneedles for drug delivery and biosensing. Therapeutic Delivery. 9(7), 489 每 492. DOI: 10.4155/tde-2018-0012.


22. Sun L, Wu H, Ren L, Cong J, Qin X, Wang X, Qi X, Kang L, Zhang J, Wu C. Jun 2018. Development and validation of a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determination of brain active agent dianhydrogalactitol in mouse plasma and tissues: Application to a pharmacokinetic study. Journal of Chromatography B. 15:1087-1088:90-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2018.04.026.


23. Tan JJY, Tee JK, Chou KO, Yong SYA, Pan J, Ho HK, Ho PCL, Kang L. May 2018. Impact of substrate stiffness on dermal papilla aggregates in microgels. Biomaterials Science. 6(6):1347-1357. DOI: 10.1039/c8bm00248g.


24. Tan JJY, Kang L. May 2018. Engineering the future of hair follicle regeneration and delivery. Therapeutic Delivery. 9(5), 321每324. DOI: 10.4155/tde-2018-0007.

25. Lim SH, Sun Y, Madanagopal Thiruvallur T, Rosa V, Kang L. Jan 2018. Enhanced skin permeation of antiwrinkle peptides via molecular modification. Scientific Report. 8:1596. DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-18454-z.



26. Ding D, Pan J, Lim SH, Amini S, Kang L, Miserez A. Sep 2017. Squid suckerin microneedle arrays for tunable drug release. Journal of Materials Chemistry B. DOI: 10.1039/C7TB01507K.


27. Tan JJY, Pan J, Sun L, Zhang J, Wu C and Kang L. Apr 2017. Bioactives in Chinese proprietary medicine modulates 5a-reductase activity and gene expression associated with androgenetic alopecia. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 8:194. DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00194.


28. Lim SH, Ng JY, Kang L, Jan 2017. 3-dimensional printing of a microneedle array on personalized curved surface for dual prong treatment of trigger finger. Biofabrication. 9(1):015010. DOI: 10.1088/1758-5090/9/1/015010.




29. Li H, Toh PZ, Tan JY, Zin MT, Lee CY, Li B, Leolukman M, Bao H, Kang L. Nov 2016. Selected biomarkers revealed potential skin toxicity caused by certain copper compounds. Scientific Report. 6:37664. DOI: 10.1038/srep37664.


30. Sun Y, Ruan X, Li H, Du G, Kang L. Nov 2016. Fabrication of non-dissolving analgesic suppositories using 3D printed moulds. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 513(1-2): 717每724. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.09.073.


31. Nguyen DV, Jiang S, He C, Lin Z, Lin N, Nguyen AT, Kang L, Han MY, Liu XY. Oct 2016. Elevating biomedical performance of ZnO/SiO2@amorphous calcium phosphate - bioinspiration making possible the impossible. Advanced Functional Materials. 26(38): 6921每6929. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201601481.


32. Sun Y, Gong X, Tan JY, Kang L, Li D, Vikash, Yang J and Du G. Sep 2016. In vitro antiviral activity of rubia cordifolia aerial part extract against rotavirus. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 7:308. DOI; 10.3389/fphar.2016.00308.


33. Kathuria H, Li H, Pan J, Lim SH, Kochhar JS, Wu C, Kang L. Sep 2016. Large size microneedle patch to deliver lidocaine through skin. Pharmaceutical Research. 33(1): 2653每2667. DOI:10.1007/s11095-016-1991-4.


34. Lim SH, Chia SMY, Kang L, Yap KYL. July 2016. Three-dimensional-printing of carbamazepine sustained-release scaffold. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 105(7):2155-63. DOI:10.1016/j.xphs.2016.04.031


35. Kang L, Majd S. Apr 2016. Application of Hydrogels in Drug Delivery and Biosensing. Edited book (vol. 3), World Scientific Publishing Co. ISBN: 978-981-3140-41-7


36. Li H, Bao H, Bok KX, Lee CY, Li B, Zin MT, Kang L. Jan 2016. High durability and low toxicity antimicrobial coatings fabricated by quaternary ammonium silane copolymers. Biomaterials Science. 4:299-309. DOI: 10.1039/C5BM00353A




37. Kathuria H, Kochhar JS, Fong MH, Hashimoto M, Iliescu C, Yu H, Kang L. Nov 2015. Polymeric microneedle array fabrication by photolithography. Journal of Visualized Experiment. 105:e52914. DOI: 10.3791/52914. DOI: 10.3791/52914


38. Kathuria H, Fong MH, Kang L. Aug 2015. Fabrication of photomasks consisting microlenses for the production of polymeric microneedle array. Drug Delivery and Translational Research. 5(4):438-50. DOI: 10.1007/s13346-015-0245-z


39. Li H, Low YSJ, Chong HP, Zin MT, Lee CY, Li B, Leolukman M, Kang L. Aug 2015. Microneedle-mediated delivery of copper peptide through skin. Pharmaceutical Research. 32(8):2678-89. DOI: 10.1007/s11095-015-1652-z


40. Nguyen DV, Li F, Li H, Wong BS, Low CY, Liu XY, Kang L. Feb 2015. Drug permeation through skin is inversely correlated with carrier gel rigidity. Molecular Pharmaceutics. 12(2):444-452. DOI: 10.1021/mp500542a




41. Kwan YH, Tung YK, Kochhar JS, Li H, Poh AL, Kang L. Sep 2014. Handbook of Cosmeceutical Excipients. Woodhead Publishing. (Book) Print Book ISBN :9781907568534; eBook ISBN :9781908818713


42. Kochhar JS, Anbalagan PSO, Shelar SB, Neo JK, Iliescu C, Kang L. Jul 2014. Direct Microneedle Array Fabrication off a Photomask to Deliver Collagen through Skin. Pharmaceutical Research. 31(7):1724-1734. DOI: 10.1007/s11095-013-1275-1




43. Kochhar JS, Li WX S, Zou S, Foo WY, Pan J, Kang L. Nov 2013. Microneedle integrated transdermal patch for fast onset and sustained delivery of lidocaine.  Molecular Pharmaceutics. 2013, 10(11): 4272-4280. DOI: 10.1021/mp400359w


44. Kochhar JS, Quek TC, Soon WJ, Choi J, Zou S, Kang L. Nov 2013. Effect of microneedle geometry and supporting substrate on microneedle array penetration into skin. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 102(11):4100-4108. DOI: 10.1002/jps.23724


45. Pan J, Chan SY, Common JEA, Amini S, Miserez A, Lane EB, Kang L. Nov 2013. Fabrication of a 3D hair follicle-like hydrogel mould by soft lithography. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. 101(11):3159-69. DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.34628


46. Kochhar JS, Chan SY, Ong PS, Lee WG, Kang L. Oct 2013. Microfluidics for drug discovery and analysis. Microfluidic Devices for Biomedical Applications. Woodhead Publishing. (Book chapter) DOI : 10.1533/9780857097040.2.231


47. Yan J, Wong BS, Kang L. Sep 2013. Molecular gel for tissue engineering. Sep 2013. Soft Fibrillar Materials. Wiley.  129-162.  (Book chapter) DOI: 10.1002/9783527648047.ch4


48. Kang L, Cheong HH, Chan SY, Lim FCP. Sep 2013. Applications of small-molecule gels-drug delivery. Soft Fibrillar Materials. Wiley.  115-128. (Book chapter) DOI: 10.1002/9783527648047.ch3


49. Li H, Yu Y, Dana SF, Li B, Li CY, Kang L. Aug 2013. Novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery. Journal of Drug Targeting. 21: 611-629. DOI: 10.3109/1061186X.2013.805335


50. Kang L, Vaddi H K, Lim PFC, Cheong HH, Chan SY. Jul 2013. Terpenes and Improvement of Transdermal Drug Delivery. Handbook of Natural Products. Springer. 3757-3774. (Book chapter) DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-22144-6_160


51. Faraji-Dana S, Nguyen DV, Kochhar JS, Liu XY, Kang L. Jun 2013. UV-curable pressure sensitive adhesive films: effects of biocompatible plasticizers on mechanical and adhesion properties. Soft Matter.  9:6270-6281. DOI: 10.1039/C3SM50879J


52. Kochhar JS, Goh WJ, Chan SY, Kang L. Feb. 2013. A simple method of microneedle array fabrication for transdermal drug delivery. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy. 39:299-309. DOI: 10.3109/03639045.2012.679361


53. Mah CS, Kochhar JS, Ong PS, Kang L. Jan. 2013. A miniaturized flow-through cell to evaluate skin permeation of endoxifen.  International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 441:433-440. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2012.11.011




54. Goh WJ, Makam VS, Hu J,  Kang L, Zheng M, Yoong SL, Udalagama CNB, Pastorin G. Dec. 2012. Iron oxide filled magnetic carbon nanotube-enzyme conjugates for recycling of Amyloglucosidase. Langmuir. 28(49):16864-73. DOI: 10.1021/la303046m



55. Bauer M, Kang L, Qiu Y, (co-first authors), Wu J, Peng M, Chen HH, Camci-Unal G, Bayomy AF, Sosnovik DE, Khademhosseini A, Liao R. Nov. 2012. Adult cardiac progenitor cell aggregates exhibit survival benefit both in vitro and in vivo. PLOS One. 7(11):50491e. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050491


56. Wong BS, Teoh SH, Kang L. Aug. 2012. Polycaprolactone scaffold as targeted drug delivery system and cell attachment scaffold for post-surgical care of limb salvage. Drug Delivery and Translational Research. 2:(4) 272-283. DOI: 10.1007/s13346-012-0096-9


57. Kochhar JS, Chan SY, Ong PS and Kang L. Aug. 2012. Clinical therapeutics for phenylketonuria. Drug Delivery and Translational Research. 2:(4) 223-237. DOI: 10.1007/s13346-012-0067-1


58. Kochhar JS, Zou S, Chan SY, and Kang L. Jun. 2012. Protein encapsulation in polymeric microneedles by photolithography. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 7:3143-54. Protein encapsulation in polymeric microneedles by photolithography




59. Li H, Jiang B, Yan J, Yang Z, Chen Y, Zhang W, Choy AC, Lee M C-Y and Kang L. A drug-laden elastomer for surgical treatment of anal fistula. Drug Delivery and Translational Research. 2011;1:439-447. (Journal cover) DOI: 10.1007/s13346-011-0044-0


60. Chourasia MK, Kang L, Chan SY. Nanosized ethosomes bearing ketoprofen for improved transdermal delivery. Results in Pharma Sciences. 2011;1:60-67. DOI: 10.1016/j.rinphs.2011.10.002


61. Pan J, Chan SY, Lee WG, Kang L. Microfabricated particulate drug delivery systems. Biotechnology Journal. 2011;6:1477-1487. DOI: 10.1002/biot.201100237


62. Li H, Kochhar JS, Pan J, Chan SY, Kang L. Nano/micro-scale technologies for drug delivery. Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology. 2011;11: 337-367. DOI:10.1142/S021951941100406X



Before 2011 (Ph.D. and Postdoc)

63. Kang L, Hancock M, Brigham M, Khademhosseini A. Cell confinement within patterned nanoliter droplets in a microwell array. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part A.  2010;93:547-557. DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.32557


64. Kachouie N, Kang L, Khademhosseini A. Arraycount, an algorithm for automatic cell counting in microwell arrays. Biotechniques. 2009;47(3):x-xvi. DOI: 10.2144/000113202


65. Kang L, Chung B, Langer R, Khademhosseini A. Microfluidics for drug discovery and development: From target selection to product lifecycle management. Drug Discovery Today. 2008;13(1-2):1-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.drudis.2007.10.003


66. Lim PF, Liu XY, Kang L, Ho PC, Chan SY. Physicochemical effects of terpenes on organogel for transdermal drug delivery. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2008;358:102-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2008.02.021


67. Chung B, Kang L, Khademhosseini A. 2007.  Micro- and nanoscale technologies for tissue engineering and drug discovery applications.  Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery. 2007;2(12):1653-1668. DOI: 10.1517/17460441.2.12.1653


68. Kang L, Yap CW, Lim PF, Chen YZ, Ho PC, Chan YW, Wong GP, Chan SY. Formulation development of transdermal dosage forms: Quantitative structure-activity relationship model for predicting activities of terpenes that enhance drug penetration through human skin.  Journal of Controlled Release. 2007;31(3):211-219. DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2007.05.006


69. Kang L, Poh AL, Fan SK, Ho PC, Chan YW, Chan SY. Reversible effects of permeation enhancers on human skin. European Journal of Pharmaceutics & Biopharmaceutics. 2007;67(1):149-55. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2006.12.010


70. Lim FC P, Liu XY, Kang L, Ho PC, Chan YW, Chan SY. 2006. Limonene GP1/PG organogel as a vehicle in transdermal delivery of haloperidol.  International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2006;311:157-164. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2005.12.042


71. Kang L, Ho PC, Chan SY. Interactions between a skin penetration enhancer and the main components of human stratum corneum lipids isothermal titration calorimetry study. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 2006;83:27-30. DOI: 10.1007/s10973-005-7050-8


72. Kang L, Liu XY, Sawant PD, Ho PC, Chan YW, Chan SY. SMGA gels for the skin permeation of haloperidol. Journal of Controlled Release 2005;106:89-98. DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2005.04.017



Patent applications

73. Kang L, Chan SY, Kochhar JS, Goh WJ. 2013. A novel method to fabricate polymeric microneedles. ( WIPO WO/2013/137831 )

a.    US 61/611,603, EXPIRED after conversion into PCT application

b.    PCT/SG2013/000108, EXPIRED after entering national stage filing

c.    Singapore 1201405643R, Pending

d.    China 201380025634.6, Pending

e.    United States 14/385,236, Pending


74. Kang L, Kochhar JS, Mah CS. 2014. A miniaturized flow-through Cell (MFtC) for testing the permeation of drugs across biological membranes. (WIPO 20140102177 )


75. US  61/712,903, EXPIRED after conversion into non-provisional US & SG applications

a.    Singapore 201307640, Pending

b.    United States, 14/051,720, Pending


76. Kang L, Ng JY, Lim SH. 2016. Structure for Transdermal Drug Delivery to a Subject and Method of Fabricating the Structure.

a.    Singapore 10201605536T, Pending



News reports from Singapore and International Media


***  Microneedles  ***

77. The Straits Times, 6 September 2014, Home, pB15

NUS team pioneers pain-free injections
Link to pdf version available here

78. Lianhe Zaobao, 6 September 2014, p10

Singapore develops microneedle patch for painless drug delivery
Link to pdf version available here


79. The New Paper, 6 September 2014, p4

Pain­free injections soon a reality

Link to pdf version available here


80. Shin Min Daily News, 6 September 2014, p8

Microneedle patch enables drugs to be delivered deeper into skin

Link to pdf versiob available here


81. Channel NewsAsia, 5 September 2014
Delivering painkillers faster with microneedle patch


82. Suria TV News, 5 September 2014

Delivering painkillers faster with microneedle patch

Link to online video available here


83. Vasantham TV News, 5 September 2014

Delivering painkillers faster with microneedle patch


84. 938LIVE, 5 September 2014

Delivering painkillers faster with microneedle patch


85. Capital Radio 95.8FM, 5 September 2014
Microneedle patches

86. Warna 94.2FM, 5 September 2014

Delivering painkillers faster with microneedle patch


87. XinMSN, 5 September 2014
Delivering painkillers faster with microneedle patch


88. Reuters,

Microneedle patch promises painless pricks

Link to online article available here


89. Asia Times Sabah, 6 September 2014, p6

Singapore researchers invent microneedle patch for better delivery of drug

Link to pdf version available here


90. The Malaysian Times, 6 September 2014

Delivering painkillers faster with microneedle patch

Link to online article available here


91. Medical Design Technology, 5 September 2014
Novel microneedle patch offers faster and effective delivery of painkiller and collagen

Link to online article available here


92. Science Daily, 5 September 2014

Novel microneedle patch for faster, effective delivery of painkiller, collagen
Link to online article available here


93. Design Products & Applications, 5 September 2014

Novel microneedle patch offers fast and effective drug delivery
Link to online article available


94. Medical Xpress, 5 September 2014
Researchers invent novel microneedle patch for faster and effective delivery of painkiller and collagen
Link to online article available



***  Cosmeceuticals  ***


95. Channel 8 Hello Singapore - 25 Nov, 2 Dec and 9 Dec 2014

Episode 1 (33mins onwards)

Episode 2 (10:30mins onwards)

Episode 3 (33mins onwards)


96. The Straits Times, 11 Dec 2014, Home, pB4

NUS study of cosmetics more than skin deep

Link to online article available here


97. Lianhe Zaobao, 11 Dec 2014, p8

NUS researcher: Many cosmeceutical excipients to be studied

Link to online article available here


98. National University of Singapore

Know your cosmeceuticals

Link to online article available here



***  A study trip  ***


99. Lianhe Zaobao, 28 Jan 2015, P9

NUS pharmacy students having learning and exchange in China

Link to online article available here


Kang Lab, Pharmacy and Bank Building A15, Science Road, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia